As a port city, Jakarta was originally named Sunda Kelapa. Then, on June 22, 1527, Pangeran Fatahillah came and founded the city of Jayakarta to replace Sunda Kelapa. This date was later determined as the time when the city of Jakarta was founded. The city of Jayakarta developed as a busy port city, where traders from China, India, Arabia, Europe and other countries exchanged commodities.

In 1619, the Dutch VOC led by Jan PieterszoonCoen destroyed Jayakarta, then built a new city on the west side of the Ciliwung river called Batavia, taken from Batavieren, the ancestor of the Dutch nation Batavia was planned and built almost similar to the cities in the Netherlands, in the form of blocks separated by canals, each protected by walls as fortresses and moats.

Completed in 1650, Batavia is the residence of Europeans. Meanwhile, the Chinese, Javanese, and other indigenous people were displaced elsewhere. Batavia was used to name this city for more than three centuries. At least it started in 1619, or other sources say 1621 to 1942. In line with the de-Dutchization policy by the Japanese Government, the name of the city was deliberately changed to Indonesian or Japanese. As a result, in 1942, the name Batavia changed to Djakarta as an acronym for Djajakarta.

According to Lasmijah Hardi in Jakartaku, Jakartamu, Jakarta Kita (1987), the name change coincided with the celebration of the Great East Asian War Day, on December 8, 1942. The city’s full name is Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi. After Japan lost in World War II and Indonesia became independent on August 17, 1945, the name Jakarta continued to be used, leaving its Japanese name behind.

Entering the era of Indonesian independence, the then Minister of Information of the Republic of Indonesia (RIS), Arnoldus Isaac Zacharias Mononutu, emphasized that since December 30, 1949, there was no longer any name Batavia for this city. Since then, the name of the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia is Jakarta. The giving of the name Jakarta was again confirmed on June 22, 1956 by the Mayor of Jakarta, Sudiro (1953-1960). At that time, before 1959, Jakarta was still a part of West Java Province. In 1959, the status of Jakarta was changed, from a municipality under the mayor being upgraded to a First Level Region led by a governor.

The first governor was Soemarno Sosroatmodjo. In 1961, the status of Jakarta was changed again, from a First Level Region to a Special Capital Region (DKI). Meanwhile, the determination of Jakarta’s date of birth was based on the moment of Fatahillah’s victory in expelling the Portuguese from Sunda Kelapa on June 22, 1527. As is known, to commemorate that moment, the name Sunda Kelapa was later changed to Jayakarta. Until now, every 22 June is celebrated as the anniversary of the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia.